Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Sterna > Sterna hirundo
 

Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The common tern (Sterna hirundo) is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. This bird has a circumpolar distribution, its four subspecies breeding in temperate and subarctic regions of Europe, Asia and North America. It is strongly migratory, wintering in coastal tropical and subtropical regions. Breeding adults have light grey upperparts, white to very light grey underparts, a black cap, orange-red legs, and a narrow pointed bill. Depending on the subspecies, the bill may be mostly red with a black tip or all black. There are a number of similar species, including the partly sympatric Arctic tern, which can be separated on plumage details, leg and bill colour, or vocalisations.
View Wikipedia Record: Sterna hirundo

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
18
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.08985
EDGE Score: 1.62725

Attributes

Clutch Size [5]  2
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Incubation [2]  24 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  33 years
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Speed [6]  27.291 MPH (12.2 m/s)
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Coastal
Wing Span [6]  35 inches (.88 m)
Adult Weight [2]  120 grams
Birth Weight [2]  1 grams
Breeding Habitat [3]  Beaches and estuaries, Coastal marine, Wetlands
Wintering Geography [3]  Widespread Coastal
Wintering Habitat [3]  Beaches and estuaries, Coastal marine
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [4]  80 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  10 %
Diet - Scavenger [4]  10 %
Forages - Water Surface [4]  20 %
Forages - Underwater [4]  80 %
Female Maturity [2]  3 years
Male Maturity [2]  3 years

Ecoregions

Protected Areas

+ Click for partial list (100)Full list (1427)

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

Predators

Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)[9]

Providers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Deropristis inflata[7]
Podocotyle atomon[7]
Profilicollis botulus[7]
Sacculina carcini[7]

Consumers

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map

Distribution

Cape Peninsula National Park; North America;

External References

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6OPTIMISATION OF THE FLIGHT SPEED OF THE LITTLE, COMMON AND SANDWICH TERN, JAMES M. WAKELING AND JENNIFER HODGSON, J. exp. Biol. 169, 261-266 (1992)
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8DIET OF THE COMMON TERN (STERNA HIRUNDO) DURING THE NONBREEDING SEASON IN MAR CHIQUITA LAGOON, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA, Laura Mauco & Marco Favero, ORNITOLOGIA NEOTROPICAL 15: 121–131, 2004
9BREEDING SEASON DIET OF SHORT-EARED OWLS IN MASSACHUSETTS, DENVER W. HOLT, Wilson Bull., 105(3), 1993, pp. 490-496
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
11Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License