Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Pycnonotidae > Pycnonotus > Pycnonotus cafer
 

Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)

Wikipedia Abstract

The red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) is a member of the bulbul family of passerines. It is resident breeder across the Indian subcontinent, including Sri Lanka extending east to Burma and parts of Tibet. It has been introduced in many other parts of the world and has established itself in the wild on several Pacific islands including Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, and Hawaii. It has also established itself in parts of Dubai, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, the United States, Argentina and New Zealand. It is included in the list of the world's 100 worst invasive alien species.
View Wikipedia Record: Pycnonotus cafer

Infraspecies

Invasive Species

Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbul) is a noisy, gregarious bird distinguished by a conspicuous crimson patch below the root of the tail. It is aggressive and chases off other bird species and may also help to spread the seeds of other invasive species. It is an agricultural pest, destroying fruit, flowers, beans, tomatoes and peas. It occurs naturally from Pakistan to southwest China and has been introduced to many Pacific Islands, where it has caused serious problems by eating fruit and vegetable crops, as well as nectar, seeds and buds.
View ISSG Record: Pycnonotus cafer

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
3
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
20
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.80393
EDGE Score: 2.05463

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  43 grams
Female Weight [1]  40 grams
Male Weight [1]  46 grams
Weight Dimorphism [1]  15 %
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore, Nectarivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  20 %
Diet - Nectar [2]  20 %
Diet - Plants [2]  20 %
Diet - Seeds [2]  10 %
Diet - Vertibrates [2]  10 %
Forages - Aerial [2]  20 %
Forages - Mid-High [2]  30 %
Forages - Understory [2]  30 %
Forages - Ground [2]  20 %
Clutch Size [4]  2
Clutches / Year [1]  2
Egg Length [1]  0.827 inches (21 mm)
Egg Width [1]  0.591 inches (15 mm)
Incubation [3]  12 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  10 years
Speed [5]  31.317 MPH (14 m/s)
Wing Span [5]  10 inches (.26 m)

Ecoregions

Protected Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

+ Click for partial list (81)Full list (196)

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Choanotaenia pande <Unverified Name>[9]
Davainea nitini <Unverified Name>[9]
Geopetitia aspiculata <Unverified Name>[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Distribution

Oceania;

External References

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5Pande, S., A. Padhye, P. Deshpande, A. Ponkshe, P. Pandit, A. Pawashe, S. Pednekar, R. Pandit & P. Deshpande (2013). Avian collision threat assessment at ‘Bhambarwadi Wind Farm Plateau’ in northern Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(1): 3504–3515
6Foraging ecology of Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer in Haridwar, India, DINESH BHATT and ANIL KUMAR, Forktail 17 (2001), p. 109-110
7Frugivory and seed dispersal of Carissa spinarum (L.) in a tropical deciduous forest of central India, R. M. MISHRA & PUSHPLATA GUPTA, Tropical Ecology 46(2): 151–156, 2005
8"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License