Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Icteridae > Icterus > Icterus icterus

Icterus icterus (Venezuelan Troupial; Troupial)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Venezuelan troupial (Icterus icterus) is the national bird of Venezuela and one of about 25 or so species of New World orioles. It is found in Colombia, Venezuela, and the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, and Puerto Rico. Previously forming a superspecies simply named Turpial, it was recently split together with the orange-backed troupial and Campo troupial.
View Wikipedia Record: Icterus icterus


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.23338
EDGE Score: 1.65506


Adult Weight [1]  72 grams
Female Weight [1]  67 grams
Male Weight [1]  77 grams
Weight Dimorphism [1]  14.9 %
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore
Diet - Endothermic [2]  10 %
Diet - Fruit [2]  40 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  50 %
Forages - Mid-High [2]  30 %
Forages - Understory [2]  50 %
Forages - Ground [2]  20 %
Clutch Size [3]  3


Protected Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No

Emblem of

Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic Of

Prey / Diet

Albizia saman (Rain Tree)[4]
Erythrina poeppigiana (mountain immortelle)[4]
Polybia ignobilis[5]
Polybia occidentalis[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map



External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Arendt, W.J.; Faaborg, J.; Wallace, G.E.; Garrido, O.H. 2004. Biometrics of birds throughout the Greater Caribbean basin. Proceedings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology. 8(1): 1-33.
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
4del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
5Raw, A. (1997). Avian predation on individual neotropical social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) outside their nests. Ornitologia neotropical, 8, 89-92.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License