Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Emberizidae > Emberiza > Emberiza citrinella
 

Emberiza citrinella (Yellowhammer)

Wikipedia Abstract

The yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella) is a passerine bird in the bunting family that is native to Eurasia and introduced to New Zealand, Australia, Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, the Falkland Islands, South Africa, United States and Canada. Most European birds remain in the breeding range year-round, but the eastern subspecies is partially migratory, with much of the population wintering further south. The male yellowhammer has a bright yellow head, streaked brown back, chestnut rump and yellow underparts. Other plumages are duller versions of the same pattern. The yellowhammer is common in open areas with some scrubs or trees, and forms small flocks in winter. It has a characteristic song with an "A little bit of bread and no cheese" rhythm. The song is very similar to that of its cl
View Wikipedia Record: Emberiza citrinella

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
3
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
16
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.44528
EDGE Score: 1.49184

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  30 grams
Birth Weight [2]  2.9 grams
Forages - Ground [3]  100 %
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Clutch Size [5]  4
Clutches / Year [4]  2
Incubation [4]  13 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  13 years
Wing Span [4]  10 inches (.26 m)

Ecoregions

Protected Areas

+ Click for partial list (100)Full list (269)

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No

Prey / Diet

Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[6]
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Predators

Accipiter nisus (Eurasian Sparrowhawk)[6]
Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)[7]
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)[6]

Providers

Shelter 
Crataegus heterophylla (Common Hawthorn)[6]
Crataegus laevigata (Midland Hawthorn)[6]
Phleum pratense (common timothy)[6]

Consumers

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Distribution

External References

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4British Trust for Ornithology
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Ecology of Commanster
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
9International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License