Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Sturnidae > Sturnus > Sturnus vulgaris
 

Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling; Common Starling)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The common starling (Sturnus vulgaris), also known as the European starling, or in the British Isles just the starling, is a medium-sized passerine bird in the starling family, Sturnidae. It is about 20 cm (8 in) long and has glossy black plumage with a metallic sheen, which is speckled with white at some times of year. The legs are pink and the bill is black in winter and yellow in summer; young birds have browner plumage than the adults. It is a noisy bird, especially in communal roosts and other gregarious situations, with an unmusical but varied song. Its gift for mimicry has been noted in literature including the Mabinogion and the works of Pliny the Elder and William Shakespeare.
View Wikipedia Record: Sturnus vulgaris

Infraspecies

Invasive Species

Native to Europe, Asia and North Africa, Sturnus vulgaris (the European starling) has been introduced globally, save in neotropic regions. The starling prefers lowland habitats and is an aggressive omnivore. Sturnus vulgaris cost hundreds of millions of dollars in agricultural damage each year and contribute to the decline of local native bird species through competition for resources and nesting spaces.
View ISSG Record: Sturnus vulgaris

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
5
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
20
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.54402
EDGE Score: 1.71272

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  86 grams
Birth Weight [3]  6 grams
Breeding Habitat [2]  Generalist
Wintering Geography [2]  Non-migrartory
Wintering Habitat [2]  Generalist
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore, Nectarivore, Granivore
Diet - Ectothermic [4]  10 %
Diet - Fruit [4]  30 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  20 %
Diet - Nectar [4]  10 %
Diet - Scavenger [4]  10 %
Diet - Seeds [4]  20 %
Forages - Understory [4]  20 %
Forages - Ground [4]  80 %
Female Maturity [3]  1 year
Male Maturity [3]  1 year
Clutch Size [5]  2
Clutches / Year [3]  2
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  150,000,000
Incubation [3]  12 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  23 years
Migration [6]  Intercontinental
Speed [7]  36.238 MPH (16.2 m/s)
Wing Span [7]  15 inches (.38 m)

Ecoregions

Protected Areas

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Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

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Predators

Providers

Consumers

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map

Distribution

Cape Peninsula National Park; North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

External References

Audio

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Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Cabe, PR (1993). European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). In: Poole, A. and Gill, F. (eds) The Birds of North America, no. 48. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; The American Ornithologist's Union, Washington, DC.
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
7Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
8Ecology of Commanster
9FLESHY FRUITS OF INDIGENOUS AND ADVENTIVE PLANTS IN THE DIET OF BIRDS IN FOREST REMNANTS, NELSON, NEW ZEALAND, PETER A. WILLIAMS and BRIAN J. KARL, New Zealand Journal of Ecology (1996) 20(2): 127-145
10Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
11Birds and berries: a study of an ecological interaction. Calton, Great Britain, Snow B.K., Snow D.W., 1988, T & AD Poyser. 268 p.
12Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177
13Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
14Olsen, J., Judge, D., Fuentes, E., Rose, AB and Debus, S. (2010). Diets of Wedge-tailed Eagles (Aquila audax) and Little Eagles (Hieraaetus morphnoides) breeding near Canberra, Australia Journal of Raptor Research 44: 50–61
15Un-paint it black: Avian prey as a component of the diet of nestling Hooded Crows Corvus cornix, Piotr Zduniak, Jakub Z. Kosicki & Bartłomiej Gołdyn, Belg. J. Zool., 138 (1) : 85-89 (2008)
16del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
17Comparison of Saker Falcon Falco cherrug Prédation during and after the Breeding Period, János Bagyura, László Haraszthy, Sándor Gróf and Iván Demeter, Chancellor, R. D. & B.-U. Meyburg eds. 2004 Raptors Worldwide, p. 673-677
18Olsen, J., E. Fuentes, DM Bird, AB Rose, and D. Judge. 2008. Dietary shifts based upon prey availability in Peregrine Falcons and Australian Hobbies breeding near Canberra, Australia Journal of Raptor Research 42:125–137
19BREEDING-SEASON DIET OF A PAIR OF BARKING OWLS NEAR ARMIDALE, NEW SOUTH WALES, S. J. S. DEBUS, J. A. FORD and A. B. ROSE, Corella, 2005, 29(1): 15-16
20Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
21Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
22International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
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