Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Canidae > Canis > Canis lupus

Canis lupus (Wolf; gray wolf)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

("Wolf" and "She-wolf" redirect here. For other uses, see Wolf (disambiguation) and She-wolf (disambiguation).) The gray wolf or grey wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf or western wolf, is a canid native to the wilderness and remote areas of Eurasia and North America. It is the largest extant member of its family, with males averaging 43–45 kg (95–99 lb), and females 36–38.5 kg (79–85 lb). Like the red wolf, it is distinguished from other Canis species by its larger size and less pointed features, particularly on the ears and muzzle. Its winter fur is long and bushy, and predominantly a mottled gray in color, although nearly pure white, red, or brown to black also occur. As of 2005, 37 subspecies of C. lupus are recognised by MSW3.
View Wikipedia Record: Canis lupus


Canis lupus albus (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus alces (Kenai grey wolf)
Canis lupus arabs (Arabian wolf)
Canis lupus arctos (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus baileyi (Mexican wolf)
Canis lupus beothucus
Canis lupus bernardi (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus campestris (Asian grey wolf)
Canis lupus chanco (Mongolian grey wolf)
Canis lupus columbianus (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus crassodon (Vancouver grey wolf)
Canis lupus dingo (domestic dog) (Attributes)
Canis lupus familiaris (domestic dog) (Attributes)
Canis lupus filchneri
Canis lupus floridanus
Canis lupus fuscus
Canis lupus gregoryi
Canis lupus griseoalbus
Canis lupus hattai (Japanese wolf)
Canis lupus hodophilax (Japanese dwarf wolf (extinct ~1920))
Canis lupus hudsonicus (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus irremotus (Northern Rockies grey wolf)
Canis lupus labradorius (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus ligoni (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus lupus (European grey wolf)
Canis lupus lycaon (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus mackenzii (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus manningi (Baffin grey wolf)
Canis lupus mogollonensis
Canis lupus monstrabilis
Canis lupus nubilus (Plains grey wolf)
Canis lupus occidentalis (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus orion
Canis lupus pallipes (Indian grey wolf)
Canis lupus pambasileus (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus rufus (Red Wolf) (Critically Endangered) (Attributes)
Canis lupus tundrarum (Tundra wolf)
Canis lupus youngi (Southern Rocky Mountain grey wolf)

Invasive Species

Canis lupus (the dog) is possibly the first animal to have been domesticated by humans. It has been selectively bred into a wide range of different forms. They are found throughout the world in many different habitats, both closely associated with humans and away from habitation. They are active hunters and have significant negative impacts on a wide range of native fauna.
View ISSG Record: Canis lupus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.12
EDGE Score: 1.42


Adult Weight [1]  58.698 lbs (26.625 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  450 grams
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Vertebrates)
Diet - Endothermic [2]  100 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Female Maturity [1]  1 year 10 months
Male Maturity [1]  1 year 10 months
Gestation [1]  62 days
Litter Size [1]  6
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  21 years
Nocturnal [3]  Yes
Speed [4]  34.896 MPH (15.6 m/s)
Weaning [1]  47 days


Protected Areas

+ Click for partial list (100)Full list (433)


Biodiversity Hotspots

Emblem of


Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap


Canis latrans (Coyote)[6]
Canis lupus (Wolf)[6]
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)[6]
Galeocerdo cuvier (Tiger-shark)[6]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[6]


Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map


Australia; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); Middle America; North America; Southern Asia;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
4Wikipedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
5Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Bos grunniens and Bos mutus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), DAVID M. LESLIE, JR. AND GEORGE B. SCHALLER, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 836:1–17 (2009)
8Capra cylindricornis, Paul J. Weinberg, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 695, pp. 1–9 (2002)
9Capra sibirica, Alexander K. Fedosenko and David A. Blank, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 675, pp. 1–13 (2001)
10Foraging by lynx and its role in ungulate mortality: the local (Białowieża Forest) and the Palaearctic viewpoints, Włodzimierz JĘDRZEJEWSKI, Krzysztof SCHMIDT, Lech MIŁKOWSKI, Bogumiła JĘDRZEJEWSKA, Henryk OKARMA, Acta Theriologica 38 (4): 385-403
11Capreolus pygargus, Aleksey A. Danilkin, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 512, pp. 1-7 (1995)
12Cercartetus nanus, JAMIE M. HARRIS, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 815:1–10 (2008)
13Cervus nippon, George A. Feldhamer, Mammalian Species No. 128, pp. 1-7 (1980)
14Gazella dorcas, Yoram Yom-Tov, Heinrich Mendelssohn, and Colin P. Groves, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 491, pp. 1-6 (1995)
15Gazella gazella, Heinrich Mendelssohn, Yoram Yom-Tov, and Colin P. Groves, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 490, pp. 1-7 (1995)
16Glaucomys sabrinus, Nancy Wells-Gosling and Lawrence R. Heaney, Mammalian Species No. 229, pp. 1-8 (1984)
17Glis glis (Rodentia: Gliridae), BORIS KRYSTUFEK, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 42(865):195–206 (2010)
18Exploring the Denali Food Web, ParkWise, National Park Service
19Lepus arcticus, Troy L. Best and Travis Hill Henry, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 457, pp. 1-9 (1994)
20Lepus townsendii, Burton K. Lim, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 288, pp. 1-6 (1987)
21Marmota caligata (Rodentia: Sciuridae), JANET K. BRAUN, T. SCOTT EATON, JR., AND MICHAEL A. MARES, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 43(884):155–171 (2011)
22Martes zibellina (Carnivora: Mustelidae), VLADIMIR G. MONAKHOV, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 43(876):75–86 (2011)
23Microtus miurus (Rodentia: Cricetidae), F. RUSSELL COLE AND DON E. WILSON, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 42(855):75–89 (2010)
24Nyctereutes procyonoides, Oscar G. Ward and Doris H. Wurster-Hill, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 358, pp. 1-5 (1990)
25Ovis ammon, Alexander K. Fedosenko and David A. Blank, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 773, pp. 1–15 (2005)
26Procapra gutturosa, Vladimir E. Sokolov and Anna A. Lushchekina, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 571, pp. 1-5 (1997)
27Sciurus niger, John L. Koprowski, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 479, pp. 1-9 (1994)
285.5 Corsac, Vulpes corsac, A. Poyarkov and N. Ovsyanikov, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp.
29Alopex lagopus, Alexandra M. Audet, C. Brian Robbins, and Serge Larivière, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 713, pp. 1–10 (2002)
30SPECIES ASSESSMENT FOR SWIFT FOX (VULPES VELOX) IN WYOMING, DARBY N. DARK-SMILEY AND DOUGLAS A. KEINATH, prepared for United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, December 2003
31Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
32Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
33International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License