Animalia > Chordata > Amphibia > Anura > Leiopelmatidae > Leiopelma > Leiopelma hamiltoni

Leiopelma hamiltoni (brown New Zealand frog; Stephen Island Frog)

Wikipedia Abstract

Hamilton's frog (Leiopelma hamiltoni) is a primitive frog native to New Zealand, one of only four extant species belonging to the family Leiopelmatidae. The male remains with the eggs to protect them and allows the tadpoles to climb onto his back where they are kept moist. It is named after Harold Hamilton, its discoverer. The holotype is in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.
View Wikipedia Record: Leiopelma hamiltoni

EDGE Analysis

This species is one of the rarest and most ancient frogs in the world. It was originally found on both the North and South Island of New Zealand, but its range was reduced to a 600 m sq. boulder bank near the summit of Stephens Island. It is a ground-dwelling and night-active species that hides in damp, mossy rock crevices during the day. Males guard the nesting site and carry the newly hatched young on their backs. Despite being less than 50 mm long, it is New Zealand’s largest native frog. It is threatened by its tiny range and small population, introduced and native predators, and potentially a virulent fungal disease (chytridiomycosis).
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 78.78
EDGE Score: 6.46
View EDGE Record: Leiopelma hamiltoni


Adult Weight [1]  8 grams
Diet [1]  Carnivore (Invertebrates)
Female Maturity [1]  3 years
Male Maturity [1]  3 years
Litter Size [1]  13
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  23 years
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Snout to Vent Length [1]  1.85 inches (4.7 cm)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Richmond temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Takaporewa Nature Reserve 371 New Zealand      

Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) Sites

Name  Location   Map   Climate   Land Use 
Takaporewa Nature Reserve (Stephen's Island) New Zealand    

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
New Zealand New Zealand Yes


Sphenodon punctatus (Tuatara)[2]

Range Map



External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Oliveira, Brunno Freire; São-Pedro, Vinícius Avelar; Santos-Barrera, Georgina; Penone, Caterina; C. Costa, Gabriel. (2017) AmphiBIO, a global database for amphibian ecological traits. Sci. Data.
2Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
AZE sites provided by Alliance for Zero Extinction (2010). 2010 AZE Update.
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License