Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Malpighiales > Salicaceae > Salix > Salix nigra

Salix nigra (black willow)


Wikipedia Abstract

Salix nigra (black willow) is a species of willow native to eastern North America, from New Brunswick and southern Ontario west to Minnesota, and south to northern Florida and Texas.
View Wikipedia Record: Salix nigra


Air Quality Improvement [1]  None
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Shade Percentage [1]  80 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Bloom Period [2]  Early Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Dioecious
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Multiple Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Janka Hardness [4]  360 lbf (163 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Bees
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting
Root Depth [2]  32 inches (81 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Low
Seeds Per [2]  2499995 / lb (5511550 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [5]  0.39
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  The young stems are very flexible and are used in basket and furniture making; The twigs can be split in half lengthways, sun-dried and used as the foundation of coiled basketry; The plant is usually coppiced annually when grown for basket making, though it is possible to coppice it every two years if thick poles are required as uprights. A fibre obtained from the stems is used in making paper; The stems are harvested in spring or summer, the leaves are removed and the stems steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then beaten with mallets or put through a blender. The paper is red/brown in colour; The trees are often used in erosion control, their roots forming dense networks that stabilize stream banks; The bark is a good source of tannin; A decoction or infusion of the bark can be used as a hair wash to make the hair grow; Wood - not durable, light, soft and weak but does not splinter, warp or check; The wood is tough and fairly strong according to another report; It weighs 27lb per cubic foot; Used where strength is not important, for artificial limbs, barn floors etc; A good charcoal is also obtained from the wood;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Height [3]  39 feet (12 m)
Width [1]  17 feet (5.3 m)
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Full Sun
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Water Use [1]  High to Moderate
Foliage Color [2]  Green
View Plants For A Future Record : Salix nigra

Protected Areas





Range Map


North America;

External References

USDA Plant Profile



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
7Ammotragus lervia, Gary G. Gray and C. David Simpson, Mammalian Species No. 144, pp. 1-7 (1980)
8Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
9HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
10Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
11Robertson, C. Flowers and insects lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty three flowers. 1929. The Science Press Printing Company Lancaster, PA.
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License