Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Celastrales > Celastraceae > Euonymus > Euonymus europaeus
 

Euonymus europaeus (European spindletree)

Synonyms:

Wikipedia Abstract

Euonymus europaeus (spindle, European spindle, common spindle) is a species of flowering plant in the family Celastraceae, native to much of Europe, where it inhabits the edges of forest, hedges and gentle slopes, tending to thrive on nutrient-rich, chalky and salt-poor soils. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree. Other names include fusoria, fusanum, ananbeam, shemshad rasmi (Iran), while it may have given its name to the ancient Greek settlement of Euonymeia.
View Wikipedia Record: Euonymus europaeus

Attributes

Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-High
Bee Flower Color [2]  Ultraviolet
Flower Color [2]  Green
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [3]  Hermaphrodite
Hazards [3]  Poisonous. No further details.
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Insects, Lepidoptera
Specific Gravity [6]  0.603
Structure [3]  Shrub
Usage [3]  The whole plant yields a volatile oil that is used in soap making; Other reports say that the oil is obtained from the seed; It is possible that there are two oils, an essential oil from the plant and an oil from the seed; A good yellow dye is obtained from the fleshy coating around the seeds; This becomes green with the addition of alum, but unfortunately both colours are rather fugitive; The baked and powdered berries are used to remove lice from the hair; The leaves are used; Roots yield up to 4% gutta-percha, a non elastic rubber used as an electrical insulation and for making plastics; Wood - very hard, easily split, fine-grained, not durable; Used for spindles, skewers, knitting needles, toothpicks, carving etc; A high quality charcoal is obtained from the wood, it is used by artists;
Height [3]  20 feet (6 m)
Light Preference [5]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [5]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [5]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [5]  Moist
View Plants For A Future Record : Euonymus europaeus

Protected Areas

Predators

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Erysiphe euonymi[8]
Phylloporia ribis[8]

Distribution

External References

USDA Plant Profile

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2Arnold SEJ, Faruq S, Savolainen V, McOwan PW, Chittka L, 2010 FReD: The Floral Reflectance Database — A Web Portal for Analyses of Flower Colour. PLoS ONE 5(12): e14287.
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
5ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
6Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
10Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
11VARIATIONS IN SPINDLE EUONYMUS EUROPAEUS CONSUMPTION BY FRUGIVOROUS BIRDS DURING THE FRUITING SEASON, Ángel HERNÁNDEZ, Ardeola 50(2), 2003, 171-180
12FLESHY FRUITS OF INDIGENOUS AND ADVENTIVE PLANTS IN THE DIET OF BIRDS IN FOREST REMNANTS, NELSON, NEW ZEALAND, PETER A. WILLIAMS and BRIAN J. KARL, New Zealand Journal of Ecology (1996) 20(2): 127-145
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License