Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Lamiales > Oleaceae > Olea > Olea europaea
 

Olea europaea (olive)

Synonyms: Olea pallida; Olea sativa

Wikipedia Abstract

The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "european olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands, Mauritius and Réunion. The species is cultivated in many places and considered naturalized in all the countries of the Mediterranean coast, as well as in Argentina, Saudi Arabia, Java, Norfolk Island, California and Bermuda.
View Wikipedia Record: Olea europaea

Infraspecies

Invasive Species

In Europe and Northern Africa, the olive tree (Olea europaea) has been widely cultivated for its fruit and valuable oil for thousands of years (i.e. subspecies europaea). Escapes from cultivation are known to occur due to the large amount of bird-dispersed seed produced; potentially resulting in the formation of dense monocultures which can permanently displace native plant species and increase the fire hazard. There are several physical and chemical management options available for O. europaea; but these are generally labour intensive and require follow-up operations due to the large amount of seed produced as well as its coppicing ability.
View ISSG Record: Olea europaea

Attributes

Allergen Potential [1]  High
Dispersal Mode [5]  Zoochory
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Janka Hardness [3]  3180 lbf (1442 kgf) Very Hard
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Specific Gravity [6]  0.806
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  The non-drying oil obtained from the seed is also used for soap making, lighting and as a lubricant; The oil is a good hair tonic and dandruff treatment; Maroon and purple dyes are obtained from the whole fresh ripe fruits; Blue and black dyes are obtained from the skins of fresh ripe fruits; A yellow/green dye is obtained from the leaves; Plants are used to stabilize dry dusty hillsides; Wood - very hard, heavy, beautifully grained, takes a fine polish and is slightly fragrant. It is used in turnery and cabinet making, being much valued by woodworkers;
Height [2]  33 feet (10 m)
Width [2]  26 feet (8 m)
View Plants For A Future Record : Olea europaea

Protected Areas

Emblem of

Predators

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Hemicycliophora arenaria <Unverified Name>[17]

Distribution

North America; Oceania;

External References

USDA Plant Profile

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
4USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
5Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis D, Tavsanoglu Ç, Lloret F, Buhk C, Ojeda F, Luna B, Moreno JM, Rodrigo A, Espelta JM, Palacio S, Fernández-Santos B, Fernandes PM, and Pausas JG. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90: 1420.
Paula S. & Pausas J.G. 2013. BROT: a plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species. Version 2013.06.
6Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
8Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
11Norrbom, A.L. 2004. Fruit fly (Tephritidae) host plant database. Version Nov, 2004.
12Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae), Morgan A. Byron and Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman, University of Florida, January 2016
13del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
14A STUDY OF AVIAN FRUGIVORES, BIRD-DISPERSED PLANTS, AND THElR INTERACTION IN MEDITERRANEAN SCRUBLANDS, CARLOS M. HERRERA, Ecological Monographs, 54(1), 1984, pp. 1-23
15DIET, FRUIT CHOICE AND VARIATION IN BODY CONDITION OF FRUGIVOROUS WARBLERS IN MEDITERRANEAN SCRUBLAND, PEDRO JORDANO, Ardea 76 (1988): 193-209
16Frugivory, external morphology and digestive system in Mediterranean sylviid warblers Sylvia spp., Pedro Jordano, IBIS 129: 175-189 (1987)
17Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License