Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Primates > Hominoidea > Hominidae > Pongo > Pongo pygmaeus

Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo. Together with the Sumatran orangutan, it belongs to the only genus of great apes native to Asia. Like the other great apes, orangutans are highly intelligent, displaying advanced tool use and distinct cultural patterns in the wild. Orangutans share approximately 97% of their DNA with humans. The Bornean orangutan is a critically endangered species, with deforestation, palm oil plantations and hunting posing a serious threat to its continued existence.
View Wikipedia Record: Pongo pygmaeus


Pongo pygmaeus morio (North-east Bornean Orangutan)
Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus (North-west Bornean Orangutan)
Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii (Central Bornean Orangutan)

Endangered Species

Status: Critically Endangered
View IUCN Record: Pongo pygmaeus

EDGE Analysis

The orangutan is the only great ape that occurs outside Africa, and is the largest arboreal mammal in the world. Orangutans are extremely intelligent, and have shown evidence of tool use and culture - traits once believed to be uniquely human. Despite being one of our closest relatives, human activities are having a devastating impact on the species. Orangutans are the slowest breeding of all mammal species, giving birth to a single young every 6-8 years. With such a low reproductive rate even a small decrease in numbers can lead to extinction. Scientists predict that unless immediate action is taken, this peaceful primate could be the first great ape to become extinct in the wild.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 13.63
EDGE Score: 4.76
View EDGE Record: Pongo pygmaeus


Arboreal [1]  Yes
Gestation [3]  8 months 9 days
Litter Size [3]  1
Litters / Year [3]  0.2
Maximum Longevity [3]  59 years
Weaning [3]  2 years 9 months
Adult Weight [2]  123.46 lbs (56.00 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  3.829 lbs (1.737 kg)
Female Weight [2]  81.571 lbs (37.00 kg)
Male Weight [2]  165.348 lbs (75.00 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  102.7 %
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore
Diet - Fruit [4]  80 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  10 %
Diet - Vertibrates [4]  10 %
Forages - Arboreal [4]  100 %
Female Maturity [3]  7 years
Male Maturity [3]  7 years


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo montane rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundaland heath forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand Yes

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

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Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map


Southern Asia;

External References



San Diego Zoo's Ape Cam
Cam Time:
Hours: - ( - )


Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Pongo pygmaeus, Colin P. Groves, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 4, pp. –6 (1971)
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Fruit Preferences of Four Sympatric Primate Species at Ketambe, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, Peter S. Ungar, International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1995
6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
8Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License