Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Proboscidea > Elephantidae > Elephas > Elephas maximus

Elephas maximus (Asiatic Elephant; Asian Elephant)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Asian or Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) is the only living species of the genus Elephas and is distributed in Southeast Asia from India in the west to Borneo in the east. Three subspecies are recognised—E. m. maximus from Sri Lanka, the E. m. indicus from mainland Asia, and E. m. sumatranus from the island of Sumatra. Asian elephants are the largest living land animals in Asia.
View Wikipedia Record: Elephas maximus


Elephas maximus indicus (Indian elephant)
Elephas maximus maximus (Sri Lankan elephant)
Elephas maximus sumatranus (Sumatran elephant)

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Elephas maximus

EDGE Analysis

The largest land mammal in Asia, this intelligent, highly social animal lives in small groups led by the dominant female, or 'matriarch’. The elephant play a crucial role in its forest ecosystem. Commonly referred to as a ‘keystone’ species, it helps to open up forest clearings and distributes the seeds of trees and shrubs. Threatened by poaching and the destruction of the forests in which they live, these magnificent animals are increasingly coming into conflict with the people sharing their habitat. Effective management of the species and its environment is required in order to resolve these issues.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 42.09
EDGE Score: 5.84
View EDGE Record: Elephas maximus


Adult Weight [1]  3.503 tons (3,178.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  235.896 lbs (107.00 kg)
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Diet - Plants [2]  100 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Emoji [3]  elephant
Gestation [1]  1 year 9 months
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  0.2
Maximum Longevity [1]  66 years
Speed [4]  15.211 MPH (6.8 m/s)
Weaning [1]  1 year 6 months
Female Maturity [1]  9 years
Male Maturity [1]  9 years


Protected Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Emblem of


Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

+ Click for partial list (41)Full list (117)


Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map


Southern Asia;

External References



Twycross Zoo Elephant Cam
Cam Time:
Hours: - ( - )
Feeding: Dly


Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Emoji by Twitter is licensed under CC BY 4.0
4The locomotor kinematics of Asian and African elephants: changes with speed and size, John R. Hutchinson, Delf Schwerda, Daniel J. Famini, Robert H. I. Dale, Martin S. Fischer and Rodger Kram, The Journal of Experimental Biology 209, 3812-3827 (2006)
5Ecology of the Asian Elephant in Southern India. II. Feeding Habits and Crop Raiding Patterns, R. Sukumar, Journal of Tropical Ecology Vol. 6, No. 1 (Feb., 1990), pp. 33-53
6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License