Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Proboscidea > Elephantidae > Loxodonta > Loxodonta africana
 

Loxodonta africana (African Bush Elephant; African savannah elephant; African elephant)

Wikipedia Abstract

The African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana) is the larger of the two species of African elephant. Both it and the African forest elephant have in the past been classified as a single species, known simply as the African elephant, but recent preliminary evidence has seen the forest elephant classified as a distinct species (although this status is not conclusively accepted due to concerns over conservation strategies until the reclassification is formalised).
View Wikipedia Record: Loxodonta africana

EDGE Analysis

The African elephant is extremely intelligent, highly adaptable, and exhibits a remarkable degree of social cohesion manifested in very strong and long-lasting social ties. Populations in North Africa were the source of war elephants for the ancient Carthaginians, Romans and Ethiopians, and in many African cultures the elephant is a symbol of strength and power, holding a special place in traditional beliefs. The elephant is also an important “keystone” species, playing a key role throughout the savannah and tropical forest zones it inhabits. It is threatened by habitat loss, illegal hunting for its ivory, and deliberate persecution by the people it comes into conflict with.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
19
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
55
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 37.45
EDGE Score: 4.34
View EDGE Record: Loxodonta africana

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  4.448 tons (4,035.00 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  231.487 lbs (105.00 kg)
Female Weight [1]  2.972 tons (2,696.00 kg)
Male Weight [1]  5.924 tons (5,374.00 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  99.3 %
Diet [3]  Herbivore
Diet - Plants [3]  100 %
Forages - Ground [3]  100 %
Female Maturity [2]  11 years
Male Maturity [2]  10 years
Gestation [2]  1 year 10 months
Litter Size [2]  1
Litters / Year [2]  0.2
Maximum Longevity [2]  65 years
Nocturnal [4]  Yes
Snout to Vent Length [5]  25 feet (750 cm)
Speed [6]  13.198 MPH (5.9 m/s)
Weaning [2]  2 years 11 months

Ecoregions

Protected Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Emblem of

Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

Predators

Homo sapiens (man)[11]
Panthera leo (Lion)[11]

Consumers

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map

Distribution

Africa;

External References

Audio

Play / PauseVolume

Photos

Webcams


San Diego Zoo's Elephant Cam
Cam Time:
Hours: - ( - )

Toledo Zoo Elephant Cam
Cam Time:
Hours: - ( - )

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Loxodonta africana, Larry Laursen and Marc Bekoff, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 92, pp. –8 (1978)
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
5Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
6The locomotor kinematics of Asian and African elephants: changes with speed and size, John R. Hutchinson, Delf Schwerda, Daniel J. Famini, Robert H. I. Dale, Martin S. Fischer and Rodger Kram, The Journal of Experimental Biology 209, 3812-3827 (2006)
7Forest elephant group composition, frugivory and coastal use in the Réserve de Faune du Petit Loango, Gabon, Bethan J. Morgan and P. C. Lee, African Journal of Ecology, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp. 519 - 526
8Diet and distribution of elephant in the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique, Willem F. De Boer, Cornelio P. Ntumi, Augusto U. Correia and Jorge M. Mafuca, Afr. J. Ecol., 38, 188-201 (2000)
9A RECORD OF FRUITS AND SEEDS DISPERSED BY MAMMALS AND BIRDS FROM SINGIDA DISTRICT OF TANGANYIKA TERRITORY, B. D. BURTT, Journal of Ecology Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 351-355 (1929)
10"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2