Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Rodentia > Muroidea > Muridae > Tokudaia > Tokudaia muenninki

Tokudaia muenninki (Muennink's spiny rat)

Wikipedia Abstract

Muennink's spiny rat (Tokudaia muenninki) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.Endemic to Okinawa Island, Japan, its natural habitat is subtropical moist broadleaf forest. The karyotype has 2n = 44. Its sex chromosomes are abnormally large, while the other two species in Tokudaia have lost their Y chromosome. The species is threatened by deforestation, predation by feral cats and introduced mongooses, and competition with introduced black rats. In March 2008, the first wild specimen in over 30 years was caught in the northern part of Okinawa island.
View Wikipedia Record: Tokudaia muenninki

Endangered Species

Status: Critically Endangered
View IUCN Record: Tokudaia muenninki

EDGE Analysis

Resembling a large vole, the spiny rat has grooved spines protruding from its short, thick body fur. Very little is known about the species. It occurs in temperate forests and has an extremely limited distribution. The population of this little-known mammal is believed to be declining. Although individuals were captured in 1978, no specimens were recorded for a further 35 years despite efforts to capture it in 1994. The species was reportedly found to be still extant in 2008. However, it is thought to occur in an area of less than 3 square km, making it extremely vulnerable to localised threats. Loss of its forest habitat and possible predation by feral cats may spell extinction for the Okinawa spiny rat unless urgent conservation action is taken.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 13.89
EDGE Score: 5.47
View EDGE Record: Tokudaia muenninki


Adult Weight [1]  85 grams
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Snout to Vent Length [1]  7 inches (18 cm)
Top 100 Endangered [3]  Yes


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests Japan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Okinawa Kaigan Quasi National Park 121853 Japan      

Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) Sites

Name  Location   Map   Climate   Land Use 
Yambaru Japan  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Japan Japan Yes

Range Map


External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Baillie, J.E.M. & Butcher, E. R. (2012) Priceless or Worthless? The world’s most threatened species. Zoological Society of London, United Kingdom.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
AZE sites provided by Alliance for Zero Extinction (2010). 2010 AZE Update.
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License