Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Ursidae > Tremarctos > Tremarctos ornatus

Tremarctos ornatus (Spectacled Bear)

Wikipedia Abstract

The spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as the Andean bear or Andean short-faced bear and locally as jukumari (Aymara), ukumari (Quechua) or ukuku, is the last remaining short-faced bear (subfamily Tremarctinae). Its closest relatives are the extinct Florida spectacled bear, and the giant short-faced bears of the Middle Pleistocene to Late Pleistocene age. Spectacled bears are the only surviving species of bear native to South America, and the only surviving member of the subfamily Tremarctinae. The species is classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN because of habitat loss.
View Wikipedia Record: Tremarctos ornatus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 29.84
EDGE Score: 4.82


Adult Weight [1]  240.856 lbs (109.25 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  320 grams
Diet [2]  Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  80 %
Diet - Plants [2]  20 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  7 months 18 days
Litter Size [1]  2
Maximum Longevity [1]  39 years
Nocturnal [3]  Yes
Weaning [1]  90 days


Protected Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Colicodendron scabridum[4]
Cordia fragrantissima[4]
Eriotheca discolor[4]
Schinus molle (false pepper)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap


Parasitized by 
Ctenocephalides felis felis[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map


Patfa Valley dry forests; South America;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
4Ecology, Distribution, and Food Habits of Spectacled Bears, Tremarctos ornatus, in Peru, Bernard Peyton, Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 61, No. 4, (Nov., 1980), pp. 639-652
5International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License