Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Perissodactyla > Equidae > Equus > Equus hemionus

Equus hemionus (kulan; Asian wild ass; Onager)

Wikipedia Abstract

The onager (Equus hemionus) (pronounced /ˈɒ-ni-jə(r)/), also known as hemione or Asiatic wild ass, is a large equid of the family Equidae (horse family) native to Asia. A member of the subgenus Asinus, the onager was described and given its binomial name by German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in 1775. Five subspecies have been recognized, one of which is extinct.
View Wikipedia Record: Equus hemionus


Equus hemionus hemionus (Mongolian wild ass)
Equus hemionus kulan (Turkmenistani onager)
Equus hemionus onager (Iranian Onager) (Attributes)

EDGE Analysis

The onager is one of the larger species of Asiatic wild ass. It is the swiftest of all the equids, and has been recorded running at speeds of up to 70 km/h. The species occurs in flat semi-desert regions which are hot during the day and cool at night, with little rainfall. Once common in most of the central and southern plains of Iran, onagers are now found in just two protected areas. The animals are at risk from poachers even within these areas, and constant conservation attention is required to secure the species’ future.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 11.33
EDGE Score: 4.59
View EDGE Record: Equus hemionus


Adult Weight [1]  507.066 lbs (230.00 kg)
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Diet - Plants [2]  100 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Female Maturity [1]  3 years 2 months
Male Maturity [1]  3 years 3 months
Gestation [1]  11 months 9 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  26 years
Speed [3]  45.007 MPH (20.12 m/s)
Weaning [1]  1 year 3 months


Protected Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No

Prey / Diet

Stipa caucasica (needlegrass)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Procapra gutturosa (Mongolian gazelle)1


Canis lupus (Wolf)[5]
Galeocerdo cuvier (Tiger-shark)[6]
Homo sapiens (man)[6]


Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map


Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); Southern Asia;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Wikipedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wenxuan Xuab, Canjun Xiaab, Weikang Yanga, David A. Blanka, Jianfang Qiaoa & Wei Liu, Seasonal diet of Khulan (Equidae) in Northern Xinjiang, China, Italian Journal of Zoology Volume 79, Issue 1, 2012
5Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
8International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License