Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Perissodactyla > Rhinocerotidae > Ceratotherium > Ceratotherium simum

Ceratotherium simum (white rhinoceros)

Synonyms: Ceratotherium simum simum; Rhinoceros burchellii; Rhinoceros camus; Rhinoceros simus

Wikipedia Abstract

The white rhinoceros or square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is the largest extant species of rhinoceros. It has a wide mouth used for grazing and is the most social of all rhino species. The white rhinoceros is considered to consist of two subspecies: the southern white rhinoceros, with an estimated 20,000 wild-living animals as of 2015, and the much rarer northern white rhinoceros. The northern subspecies has very few remaining, with only three confirmed individuals left (two females Fatu, 15 and Najin, 25 and one male Sudan, 42), all in captivity.
View Wikipedia Record: Ceratotherium simum

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 27.18
EDGE Score: 4.03


Adult Weight [1]  2.398 tons (2,175.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  115.743 lbs (52.50 kg)
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Diet - Plants [2]  100 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Female Maturity [1]  4 years 6 months
Male Maturity [1]  4 years 6 months
Gestation [1]  1 year 5 months
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  0.4
Maximum Longevity [1]  45 years
Weaning [1]  1 year


Protected Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No

Prey / Diet

Vachellia nilotica (Gum Arabic Tree)[3]
Vachellia tortilis (umbrella thorn)[3]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Bubulcus ibis (Cattle Egret)[4]
Buphagus africanus (Yellow-billed Oxpecker)[4]


Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map



External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
4Ceratotherium simum, Colin P. Groves, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 8, pp. 1-6 (1972)
5Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License