Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Perissodactyla > Rhinocerotidae > Dicerorhinus > Dicerorhinus sumatrensis

Dicerorhinus sumatrensis (Sumatran rhinoceros)

Synonyms: Rhinoceros crossii

Wikipedia Abstract

The Sumatran rhinoceros, also known as the hairy rhinoceros or Asian two-horned rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), is a rare member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses. It is the only extant species of the genus Dicerorhinus. It is the smallest rhinoceros, although it is still a large mammal; it stands 112–145 cm (3.67–4.76 ft) high at the shoulder, with a head-and-body length of 2.36–3.18 m (7.7–10.4 ft) and a tail of 35–70 cm (14–28 in). The weight is reported to range from 500 to 1,000 kg (1,100 to 2,200 lb), averaging 700–800 kg (1,500–1,800 lb), although there is a single record of a 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) specimen. Like both African species, it has two horns; the larger is the nasal horn, typically 15–25 cm (5.9–9.8 in), while the other horn is typically
View Wikipedia Record: Dicerorhinus sumatrensis


Endangered Species

Status: Critically Endangered
View IUCN Record: Dicerorhinus sumatrensis

EDGE Analysis

This two-horned rhino is the smallest and most threatened of the five living rhinoceros species. It is sometimes referred to as the ‘hairy rhino’ because of the long coarse hair that covers its body. The species leads a solitary life deep in the rainforests of South East Asia, where it has survived virtually unchanged for a million years. Sadly, human activities have brought the species to brink of extinction. Extensive deforestation and poaching for the horn have caused a dramatic decline in rhino numbers, and it is estimated that fewer than 275 individuals survive today in very small and highly fragmented populations.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 28.79
EDGE Score: 6.17
View EDGE Record: Dicerorhinus sumatrensis


Adult Weight [1]  1.389 tons (1,260.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  50.707 lbs (23.00 kg)
Diet [2]  Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  50 %
Diet - Plants [2]  50 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Female Maturity [1]  7 years 6 months
Gestation [1]  7 months 26 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  0.3
Maximum Longevity [1]  33 years
Nocturnal [2]  Yes
Top 100 Endangered [3]  Yes
Weaning [1]  1 year 4 months


Protected Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand Yes

Prey / Diet

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
White Oak Conservation Center

Range Map


Southern Asia;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Baillie, J.E.M. & Butcher, E. R. (2012) Priceless or Worthless? The world’s most threatened species. Zoological Society of London, United Kingdom.
4The Mineral Content of Food Plants of the Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) in Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia, Yook Heng Lee, Robert B. Steubing, Abdul Hamid Ahmad, BIOTROPICA 25(3): 352-355 (1993)
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License