Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Perissodactyla > Rhinocerotidae > Rhinoceros > Rhinoceros sondaicus

Rhinoceros sondaicus (Javan rhinoceros)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus), also known as the Sunda rhinoceros or lesser one-horned rhinoceros, is a very rare member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses. It belongs to the same genus as the Indian rhinoceros, and has similar mosaicked, armour-like skin, but at 3.1–3.2 m (10–10 ft) in length and 1.4–1.7 m (4.6–5.6 ft) in height, it is smaller (closer in size to the black rhinoceros of the genus Diceros). Its horn is usually shorter than 25 cm (9.8 in), and is smaller than those of the other rhino species. Only adult males have horns; females lack them altogether.
View Wikipedia Record: Rhinoceros sondaicus


Endangered Species

Status: Critically Endangered
View IUCN Record: Rhinoceros sondaicus

EDGE Analysis

With fewer than 60 individuals remaining, the Javan rhino is the rarest of all the living rhinoceros species. It has a single horn and deeply folded skin that resembles armour plating. Like other rhinos, the species eats plants and spends most of its time wallowing in pools of mud to keep cool. Two subspecies exist, one in Vietnam and the other in Java. Both have been reduced to a single population as a result of extensive habitat loss and poaching for their horns. Although these populations are now protected in national parks, they remain at risk from poaching, and the small population sizes mean that they are extremely vulnerable to disease and natural disasters.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 24.84
EDGE Score: 6.02
View EDGE Record: Rhinoceros sondaicus


Adult Weight [1]  1.929 tons (1,750.00 kg)
Diet [2]  Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  30 %
Diet - Plants [2]  70 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Female Maturity [1]  3 years 6 months
Gestation [1]  1 year 4 months
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  0.3
Top 100 Endangered [3]  Yes
Weaning [1]  1 year 6 months


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Vietnam lowland dry forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Western Java montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Java rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Cat Tien National Park II 188942 Viet Nam
Krau Wildlife Reserve IV 149823 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Ujung Kulon National Park II 313466 Java, Indonesia    

Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) Sites

Name  Location   Map   Climate   Land Use 
Ujung Kulon National Park Indonesia  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Pycnonotus erythropthalmos (Spectacled Bulbul)1
Pycnonotus plumosus (Olive-winged Bulbul)1

Range Map


Southern Asia;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Baillie, J.E.M. & Butcher, E. R. (2012) Priceless or Worthless? The world’s most threatened species. Zoological Society of London, United Kingdom.
4Rhinoceros sondaicus (Perissodactyla: Rhinocerotidae), COLIN P. GROVES AND DAVID M. LESLIE, JR., MAMMALIAN SPECIES 43(887):190–208
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
AZE sites provided by Alliance for Zero Extinction (2010). 2010 AZE Update.
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License