Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Perissodactyla > Rhinocerotidae > Rhinoceros > Rhinoceros unicornis
 

Rhinoceros unicornis (Indian rhinoceros; great Indian rhinoceros)

Synonyms:

Wikipedia Abstract

The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), also called the greater one-horned rhinoceros and great Indian rhinoceros, is a rhinoceros native to the Indian subcontinent. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, as populations are fragmented and restricted to less than 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi). Moreover, the extent and quality of the rhino's most important habitat, alluvial grassland and riverine forest, is considered to be in decline due to human and livestock encroachment.
View Wikipedia Record: Rhinoceros unicornis

EDGE Analysis

The largest of the Asian rhinos, the Indian rhinoceros can be easily identified by the rivet-like bumps on its deeply folded skin. It lives on floodplains and in adjacent forests, and is considered the most amphibious of all the rhino species. Conservation of the Indian rhino is regarded as a great success story. The species has been brought back from the brink of extinction by a sustained conservation effort, and numbers have increased from under 200 in the 1950s to around 2,600 today. However, there is no room for complacency, and the small population is still very vulnerable. Poaching remains a threat, and efforts to protect the species require continuing support.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
12
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
60
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 24.84
EDGE Score: 4.64
View EDGE Record: Rhinoceros unicornis

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  1.766 tons (1,602.33 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  127.869 lbs (58.00 kg)
Diet [2]  Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  20 %
Diet - Plants [2]  80 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Female Maturity [1]  4 years 7 months
Male Maturity [1]  7 years
Gestation [1]  1 year 3 months
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  0.3
Maximum Longevity [1]  44 years
Weaning [1]  1 year 3 months

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

Protected Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No

Emblem of

Assam

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

Consumers

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Range Map

Distribution

Southern Asia;

External References

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicornis Linn. in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India, Pradip Konwar, Malabika Kakati Saikia & P.K. Saikia, Journal of Threatened Taxa | September 2009 | 1(9): 457-460
4Dry season diets of sympatric ungulates in lowland Nepal: competition and facilitation in alluvial tall grasslands, Per Wegge, Anil K. Shrestha, Stein R. Moe, Ecol Res (2006) 21:698–706
5FRUITS RHINOCEROS EAT: DISPERSAL OF TREWIA NUDIFLORA (EUPHORBIACEAE) IN LOWLAND NEPAL, Eric Dinerstein and Chris M. Wemmer, Ecology, 69(6), 1988, pp. 1768-1774
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
7Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License