Animalia > Chordata > Amphibia > Anura > Microhylidae > Melanobatrachus > Melanobatrachus indicus

Melanobatrachus indicus (Black microhylid frog)

Wikipedia Abstract

Melanobatrachus is a genus of narrow-mouthed frogs (Microhylidae family) that contains a single species, Melanobatrachus indicus. It is known under a number of common names, including Kerala Hills frog, black microhylid frog, and Malabar black narrow-mouthed frog. It is endemic to wet evergreen forests of southern Western Ghats in Kerala and Tamil Nadu states of India. Melanobatrachus indicus is a rare species that was only rediscovered in 1997. It lives amongst leaf-litter, rocks and other ground cover of moist evergreen tropical forests.
View Wikipedia Record: Melanobatrachus indicus

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Melanobatrachus indicus

EDGE Analysis

With no close relatives in its subfamily, this species is quite literally one-of-a-kind. Its closest relatives are the three species of the Hoplophryninae subfamily of the narrow-mouthed frogs, which are commonly referred to as the banana frogs and Amani forest frog of Tanzania, Africa. These were geographically isolated from the black microhylid frog by continental drift over the last 140 million years. Unusually, this species of narrow-mouthed frog does not favour communication by sound, and the male does not possess a vocal sac. Much work needs to be done to reveal the ecology of this species as it has seldom been studied since its rediscovery in 1997.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 38.93
EDGE Score: 5.77
View EDGE Record: Melanobatrachus indicus


Diet [1]  Carnivore (Invertebrates)
Litters / Year [1]  1
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Snout to Vent Length [1]  1.339 inches (3.4 cm)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Anamalai Sanctuary 207937 Tamil Nadu, India  
Mundanthurai Sanctuary 140203 Tamil Nadu, India  
Periyar Sanctuary 192001 India  
Shendurney Sanctuary 24790 India  
Western Ghats World Heritage Site 1965266 Kerala, India  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka Yes

Range Map


External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Oliveira, Brunno Freire; São-Pedro, Vinícius Avelar; Santos-Barrera, Georgina; Penone, Caterina; C. Costa, Gabriel. (2017) AmphiBIO, a global database for amphibian ecological traits. Sci. Data.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License