Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Psittaciformes > Psittacidae > Strigops > Strigops habroptila

Strigops habroptila (Kakapo)

Synonyms: Strigops habroptilus

Wikipedia Abstract

The kakapo (Māori: kākāpō or night parrot), Strigops habroptilus (Gray, 1845), also called owl parrot, is a species of large, flightless, nocturnal, ground-dwelling parrot of the super-family Strigopoidea endemic to New Zealand.
View Wikipedia Record: Strigops habroptila

Endangered Species

Status: Critically Endangered
View IUCN Record: Strigops habroptila

EDGE Analysis

The nocturnal Kakapo or ‘owl parrot’ (so called because of its facial disc of owl-like whiskers) is a large, stocky, New Zealand endemic. It is the heaviest of all the parrots, usually gaining between 60-100% in body weight in preparation for the breeding season. Unlike typical parrots, which are gaudy, sociable and strong-fliers, the Kakapo is solitary and flightless having evolved in the absence of mammalian predators. The species was previously widespread and common throughout the country. Unfortunately, hunting, the introduction of mammalian predators, widespread forest burning and clearance, and habitat degradation by introduced herbivores have caused a catastrophic decline in numbers.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 32.3715
EDGE Score: 6.28029
View EDGE Record: Strigops habroptila


Adult Weight [1]  3.858 lbs (1.75 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  36 grams
Female Weight [1]  3.307 lbs (1.50 kg)
Male Weight [1]  4.409 lbs (2.00 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  33.3 %
Diet [3]  Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  30 %
Diet - Plants [3]  50 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  20 %
Forages - Ground [3]  100 %
Female Maturity [4]  10 years
Male Maturity [4]  5 years
Clutch Size [5]  3
Incubation [4]  30 days
Maximum Longevity [4]  60 years
Nocturnal [6]  Yes


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Fiordland temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northland temperate kauri forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Rakiura Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Richmond temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Codfish Island Nature Reserve 3450 New Zealand  
Rakiura National Park II 345849 New Zealand  
Tom Shand Scientific Reserve 764 New Zealand      

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
New Zealand New Zealand Yes

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap


Parasitized by 
Parapsyllus nestoris nestoris[8]


External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Powlesland, R., Lloyd, B. Best, HA & Merton, DV (1992). Breeding biology of the Kakapo Strigops habroptilus on Stewart Island, New Zealand. Ibis, 134, 361-73
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
5Masello JF, Quillfeldt P (2002) Chick growth and breeding success of the burrowing parrot Condor 104:574–586
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
7Atkinson, I.A.E.; Merton, D.V. 2006. Habitat and diet of kakapo (Strigops habroptilis) in the Esperance Valley, Fiordland, New Zealand. Notornis 53(1): 37-54
8International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License