Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

Location:Delaware, United States
IUCN Category:VI
Area:16,363 acres (6,622 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Website:View website
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Cfa (Climate: warm temperate; Precipitation: fully humid; Temperature: hot summer)


Middle Atlantic coastal forests
Northeastern coastal forests


Protected Area Boundary
Share60 %30 %10 %
Soil TypeGleyic AcrisolsEutric FluvisolsOrthic Acrisols
Topsoil TextureMediumMediumMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm100 cm
DrainagePoorPoorModerately well
Available Water Capacity150 m150 m150 m
Topsoil Properties
Gravel9 %4 %10 %
Sand34 %39 %49 %
Silt43 %41 %27 %
Clay23 %20 %24 %
USDA TextureLoamLoamSandy clay loam
Reference Bulk Density1.38 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.39 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.83 %0.9 %1 %
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity18 cmol kg⁻¹62 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity7 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹7 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation30 %91 %44 %
Total Exchangeable Bases1.9 cmol kg⁻¹16.4 cmol kg⁻¹3.5 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %1 %0 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium2 %2 %1 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel7 %8 %10 %
Sand28 %41 %40 %
Silt38 %38 %24 %
Clay34 %21 %36 %
USDA TextureClay loamLoamClay loam
Reference Bulk Density1.31 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³1.32 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.48 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.3 %0.4 %0.42 %
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity22 cmol kg⁻¹58 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity12 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹6 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation20 %97 %32 %
Total Exchangeable Bases2 cmol kg⁻¹15.1 cmol kg⁻¹2.3 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %3.9 %0 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium1 %3 %2 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263