Chiricahua National Monument

Location:Arizona, United States
IUCN Category:V
Area:1,421 acres (575 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Website:View website
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:BSk (Climate: arid; Precipitation: steppe; Temperature: cold arid)


Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests


Protected Area Boundary
Share60 %20 %20 %
Soil TypeLuvic YermosolsCalcic KastanozemsLithosols
Topsoil TextureMediumMediumMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm10 cm
DrainageModerately wellModerately wellImperfectly
Available Water Capacity100 m150 m15 mm
Phase 1Stony  
Topsoil Properties
Gravel20 %8 %26 %
Sand50 %32 %43 %
Silt29 %43 %34 %
Clay21 %25 %23 %
USDA TextureLoamLoamLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.42 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.5 g/cm³1.26 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.4 %1.44 %1.4 %
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity47 cmol kg⁻¹60 cmol kg⁻¹42 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity7 cmol kg⁻¹19 cmol kg⁻¹15 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation100 %100 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases14 cmol kg⁻¹18.4 cmol kg⁻¹15.6 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0.5 %5 %3.9 %
Calcium Sulphate0.1 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium6 %3 %4 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-11.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel27 %5 % 
Sand44 %30 % 
Silt28 %46 % 
Clay28 %24 % 
USDA TextureClay loamLoam 
Reference Bulk Density1.37 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³ 
Bulk Density1.47 g/cm³1.22 g/cm³ 
Organic Carbon0.28 %0.57 % 
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity58 cmol kg⁻¹78 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity11 cmol kg⁻¹18 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Base Saturation100 %100 % 
Total Exchangeable Bases14.6 cmol kg⁻¹21.1 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Calcium Carbonate3.8 %14.3 % 
Calcium Sulphate0.7 %0 % 
Exchangeable Sodium4 %3 % 
Electrical Conductivity9.7 dS m-12.5 dS m-1 
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263