Reserve Nationale de Camargue Biosphere Reserve

Area:32,232 acres (13,044 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Csa (Climate: warm temperate; Precipitation: summer dry; Temperature: hot summer)


Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests


Protected Area Boundary
Soil TypeCalcaric FluvisolsHaplic Solonchaks
Topsoil TextureMediumMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm
DrainagePoorModerately well
Available Water Capacity150 m150 m
Phase 1Saline 
Root ObstacleNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cm
Impermeable Layer80 - 150 cm80 - 150 cm
Soil Water RegimeWet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthWet within 80 cm over 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 11 month
Topsoil Properties
Gravel15 %7 %
Sand34 %34 %
Silt48 %41 %
Clay18 %25 %
USDA TextureLoamLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.41 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.39 g/cm³1.25 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.6 %0.46 %
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity68 cmol kg⁻¹50 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity14 cmol kg⁻¹17 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation100 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases19.8 cmol kg⁻¹15 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate11.7 %9 %
Calcium Sulphate0.2 %1.8 %
Exchangeable Sodium3 %28 %
Electrical Conductivity0.7 dS m-12.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel10 %8 %
Sand36 %43 %
Silt46 %34 %
Clay18 %23 %
USDA TextureLoamLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.41 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.41 g/cm³1.31 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.4 %0.32 %
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity84 cmol kg⁻¹60 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity13 cmol kg⁻¹18 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation100 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases20.7 cmol kg⁻¹13.3 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate12.2 %9 %
Calcium Sulphate0.2 %1 %
Exchangeable Sodium3 %28 %
Electrical Conductivity0.5 dS m-111.3 dS m-1
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263