Kanha Tiger Reserve

Location:Madhya Pradesh, India
IUCN Category:II
Area:223,971 acres (90,638 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Website:View website
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Cwa (Climate: warm temperate; Precipitation: winter dry; Temperature: hot summer)


Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests


Protected Area Boundary
Share60 %30 %10 %
Soil TypeChromic VertisolsVertic CambisolsLithosols
Topsoil TextureFineFineMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm10 cm
DrainagePoorModerately wellImperfectly
Available Water Capacity125 m150 m15 mm
Misc. PropertyVertic (cracks of more than 1 cm wide)Vertic (cracks of more than 1 cm wide) 
Topsoil Properties
Gravel4 %5 %26 %
Sand16 %21 %43 %
Silt29 %28 %34 %
Clay55 %51 %23 %
USDA TextureClayClayLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.21 g/cm³1.23 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.65 g/cm³1.43 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.75 %0.97 %1.4 %
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity75 cmol kg⁻¹58 cmol kg⁻¹42 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity44 cmol kg⁻¹36 cmol kg⁻¹15 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation100 %94 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases45.2 cmol kg⁻¹26.5 cmol kg⁻¹15.6 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate2.5 %0.3 %3.9 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium1 %1 %4 %
Electrical Conductivity0.2 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel5 %5 % 
Sand15 %18 % 
Silt28 %28 % 
Clay57 %54 % 
USDA TextureClayClay 
Reference Bulk Density1.21 g/cm³1.22 g/cm³ 
Bulk Density1.76 g/cm³1.46 g/cm³ 
Organic Carbon0.45 %0.45 % 
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity73 cmol kg⁻¹66 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity43 cmol kg⁻¹36 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Base Saturation100 %99 % 
Total Exchangeable Bases47.5 cmol kg⁻¹34.7 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Calcium Carbonate3.9 %3.6 % 
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 % 
Exchangeable Sodium3 %1 % 
Electrical Conductivity0.3 dS m-10.2 dS m-1 
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263