Diet Overlap

Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)

Common Diet

Euonymus europaeus (European spindletree)
Hedera helix (Algerian ivy)
Ilex aquifolium (English holly)
Phillyrea latifolia
Pistacia lentiscus (mastic tree)
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)
Solanum dulcamara (deadly nightshade)
Sorbus aucuparia (Mountain Ash)
Stenurella melanura
Viburnum rigidum (laurustinus)

Common Habitat

Adata-Tundzha
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests
Aggtelek Biosphere Reserve
AISTHITIKO DASOS KALAVRYTON
Al Wathba Wetland Reserve
Alpár-bokrosi tisza-ártéri öblözet
Alps conifer and mixed forests
Alsó-Tisza-völgy
Alte Valli Pesio e Tanaro
Alte Valli Stura e Maira
ALTO CINCA
Alto Garda Bresciano
ALYKI KITROUS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI
AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, DELTA LOUROU KAI ARACHTHOU (PETRA, MYTIKAS, EVRYTERI PERIOCHI)
AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, LIMNOTHALASSA KATAFOURKO KAI KORAKONISIA
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests
ANATOLIKI RODOS: PROFITIS ILIAS - EPTA PIGES - EKVOLI LOUTANI - KATERGO, REMA GADOURA - CHERSONISOS
ANTICHASIA ORI KAI METEORA
Appenine deciduous montane forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands
Arcipelago delle Eolie - area marina e terrestre
Arda Bridge
Arxipèlag de Cabrera
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve
Atanasovsko ezero
Atlantic mixed forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe
Azraq Wetland Reserve
Babia Góra National Park
Bacini ex-zuccherificio di Argelato e Golena del Fiume Reno
Bakarlaka
Balkan mixed forests
Baltic mixed forests
Basso Taro
Batova
Bayerischer Wald National Park
Beigua - Turchino
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve
Berchtesgaden Alps
Berezinskiy Zapovednik
Bialowieza National Park
Biotopi e Ripristini ambientali di Bentivoglio, S. Pietro in Casale, Malalbergo e Baricella
Biotopi e Ripristini ambientali di Budrio e Minerbio
Biotopi e Ripristini ambientali di Crevalcore
Biotopi e Ripristini ambientali di Medicina e Molinella
Bocca di Caset
Boschi del Ticino
Bosco della Mesola, Bosco Panfilia, Bosco di Santa Giustina, Valle Falce, La Goara
Burgasko ezero
Caerlaverock National Nature Reserve
Calamocarro-Benzú
Caledon conifer forests
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests
Canneti del Lago Maggiore
Cantabrian mixed forests
Cap de cala Figuera
Cap Enderrocat-cap Blanc
Carpathian
Carpathian montane forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests
Caucasus
Caucasus mixed forests
Celtic broadleaf forests
Central Anatolian deciduous forests
Central European mixed forests
Ceppo Tomena
CHERSONISOS SITHONIAS
Codru (Kodry) Zapovednik
COLLARADA - IBÓN DE IP
Corpo centrale e rupi costiere occidentali dell'Isola di Capri
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests
Costa Brava de Mallorca
Costa Nord de Ciutadella
COTIELLA - SIERRA FERRERA
Crete Mediterranean forests
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex
Cyprus Mediterranean forests
Dana
Darvinsky Zapovednik
Dels Alocs a Fornells
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU KAI EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PET
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU, EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PETALA
DELTA EVROU
DELTA EVROU KAI DYTIKOS VRACHIONAS
DELTA NESTOU KAI LIMNOTHALASSES KERAMOTIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI
DELTA NESTOU KAI LIMNOTHALASSES KERAMOTIS KAI NISOS THASOPOULA
Derventski Heights
DESFILADERO DE LOS GAITANES
DESFILADEROS DEL RÍO JALÓN
DESFILADEROS DEL RÍO MARTÍN
Devetashko Plateau
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests
Disgrazia - Sissone
DOÑANA
Dunkeld–Blairgowrie Lochs
Durankulak Lake
DYTIKI RODOS: ORI ATTAVYROS & AKRAMYTIS, TECHNITI LIMNI APOLAKKIAS KAI NISIDES GEORGIOU, STRONGYLI,
East European forest steppe
Eastern Afromontane
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe
Eastern Beskid
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests
EL TURBÓN Y SIERRA DE SÍS
EMBALSE DEL PAS Y SANTA RITA
Emine
English Lowlands beech forests
Eritrean coastal desert
Es Trenc-Salobrar de Campos
ESTEPAS DE BELCHITE-EL PLANERON-LA LOMAZA
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands
ETHNIKO THALASSIO PARKO ALONNISOU - VOREION SPORADON, ANATOLIKI SKOPELOS
ETHNIKOS DRYMOS SAMARIAS - FARANGI TRYPITIS - PSILAFI - KOUSTOGERAKO
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve
Fontanazzo
Fontanili di Gattatico e Fiume Enza
Foresta di Legnoli
Foret Domaniale du Circeo
GALACHOS DE LA ALFRANCA DE PASTRIZ, LA CARTUJA Y EL BURGO DE EBRO
Galata
Galichia Gora Zapovednik
Garzaia della Carola
Garzaia di Cascina Villarasca
Garzaie del Parco Adda Sud
Gessi Bolognesi, Calanchi dell'Abbadessa
Grigne
Gruppo del Monviso e Bosco dell'Alevè
Harsovska Reka
HOCES DEL RIO MESA
Horn of Africa
Hortobágy National Park
Iberian conifer forests
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests
Illots de Ponent
Illyrian deciduous forests
Irano-Anatolian
Is-Simar (l/o San Pawl il-Bahar)
Iskmo ön
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve
Isola Mal di Ventre
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests
Ivailovgrad Reservoir
Izsáki Kolon-tó
Kaliakra
Kalimok Complex
Kamchiyska Mountain
Kamenski Bair
Karadagskiy Zapovednik
Karkonosze
Karlukovski Karst
KATO OLYMPOS, OROS GODAMANI KAI KOILADA RODIAS
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve
Khazar Zapovednik
Killarney National Park
Kiskunsag Biosphere Reserve
Kiskunsági szikes tavak és az õrjegi turjánvidék
KOILADA ACHELOOU KAI ORI VALTOU
KORYFES OROUS GRAMMOS
KORYFES OROUS SMOLIKAS
KORYFES OROUS VORA
Kresna Gordge
Krivoklatsko Protected Landscape Area
Krkonose
Krumovitza
KYTHIRA KAI GYRO NISIDES: PRASONISI, DRAGONERA, ANTIDRAGONERA, AVGO, KAPELLO, KOUFO KAI FIDONISI
L-Ghadira Area
La Mola i s'Albufera de Fornells
La Rocchetta
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS
LA SOTONERA
La Trapa
La Vall
Laajalahti
Laghetto del Frassino
Lago di Mezzola e Pian di Spagna
Lagorai
LAGUNA DE SARIÑENA Y BALSA DE LA ESTACIÓN
Lake Torne Area
Lanca di Gussola
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve
LEFKA ORI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI
Limestone Coast of South West Wales/ Arfordir Calchfaen de Orllewin Cymru
LIMNES KAI LIMNOTHALASSES TIS THRAKIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI
LIMNES VISTONIS, ISMARIS - LIMNOTHALASSES PORTO LAGOS, ALYKI PTELEA, XIROLIMNI, KARATZA
LIMNI AGIAS (CHANIA)
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO
LIMNI KOURNA KAI EKVOLI ALMYROU
LIMNI STYMFALIA
LIMNOTHALASSA KALOGRIAS, DASOS STROFYLIAS KAI ELOS LAMIAS, ARAXOS
LOMA LA NEGRA - BARDENAS
Lomovete
LOS VALLES
Luberon
Ludogorie
Madzharovo
Mandra - Poda
MARISMAS DE ISLA CRISTINA
Marismas de Santoña y Noja
MARISMAS DEL RIO PIEDRAS Y FLECHA DEL ROMPIDO
Marjovuori
MATARRAÑA - AIGUABARREIX
Medio Taro
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets
Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe
Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe
Mediterranean woodlands and forests
Melnik Pyramids
Mendip Limestone Grasslands
Mesopotamian shrub desert
METERIZIA AGIOS DIKAIOS - TSOUNARA - VITSILIA LEFKON OREON
Middle East steppe
Mikre
Mondragó
Mont Ventoux
Monte Barro
Monte di Scerscen - Ghiacciai di Scerscen - Monte Motta
MONTES DE ZUERA, CASTEJÓN DE VALDEJASA Y EL CASTELLAR
MONTES UNIVERSALES - SIERRA DEL TREMEDAL
Monticchie
Mordovsky Zapovednik
Mujib Nature Reserve
Neusiedler See-Osterreichischer Teil
Nikopolsko Plateau
Nile Delta flooded savanna
NISIA ANTIPSARA KAI NISIDES DASKALIO, MASTROGIORGI, PRASONISI, KATO NISI, MESIAKO, KOUTSOULIA
North Atlantic moist mixed forests
North Norfolk Coast Biosphere Reserve
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests
NOTIO AKRO RODOU, PRASONISI, YGROTOPOS LIVADI KATTAVIAS
NOTIO DASIKO SYMPLEGMA EVROU
NOTIOANATOLIKOS PARNASSOS - ETHNIKOS DRYMOS PARNASSOU - DASOS TITHOREAS
NOTIODYTIKI CHERSONISOS, APOLITHOMENO DASOS LESVOU
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve
ORDESA Y MONTE PERDIDO
OREINOS EVROS - KOILADA DEREIOU
ORI BARMPAS, KLOKOS, FARANGI SELINOUNTA
ORI VOREIOU VOURINOU KAI MELLIA
OROPEDIO FOLOIS
OROS CHOLOMONTAS
OROS KANTILI
OROS OLYMPOS LESVOU
OROS OSSA
OROS OTHRYS, VOUNA GKOURAS KAI FARANGI PALAIOKERASIAS
OROS PARNASSOS
OROS TAYGETOS - LAGKADA TRYPIS
OROS TYMFI (GKAMILA)
OROS YMITTOS
Osogovo
Palakaria
Palava Protected Landscape Area
Pannonian mixed forests
PARAPOTAMIO DASOS VOREIOU EVROU KAI ARDA
Parc National Suisse
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano
Parco Naturale Adamello
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio
Parco Regionale Campo dei Fiori
Parco Regionale Oglio Sud
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche
Parco Regionale Orobie Valtellinesi
Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve
PERIOCHI LEGRENON - NISIDA PATROKLOU
Picentini
Po Basin mixed forests
Polana Biosphere Reserve
Ponor
Pontic steppe
POSETS - MALADETA
Pozharevo Island
Prespa National Park
Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve
Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
PUERTOS DE BECEITE
Puszcza Kampinoska
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests
Rahjan saaristo
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert
Reserve de la Biosphere d'Iroise
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord
Reserve Nationale de Camargue Biosphere Reserve
Reserve Srebarna
RIBERAS DE CASTRONUÑO
Rila
RÍO GUADALOPE - MAESTRAZGO
RÍO HUERVA Y LAS PLANAS
Risaie della Lomellina
Riserva Regionale Bosco dei Bordighi
Riserva Regionale Bosco Ronchetti
Riserva Regionale Fontanile Nuovo
Riserva Regionale Garzaia di Pomponesco
Riserva Regionale Lanca di Gerole
Riserva Regionale Paluaccio di Oga
Rödkallen-SörÄspen
Rodope montane mixed forests
Ropotamo Complex
Ruegen
Rummelön-Harrbådan
Ruy
S'Albufera de Mallorca
S'Albufera des Grau
Sa Dragonera
Saharan halophytics
Sahelian Acacia savanna
Sakar
SALVATIERRA - FOZES DE FAGO Y BINIÉS
San Genesio
Sarmatic mixed forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands
Schorfheide-Chorin
Sciorella
Serre del Burano
SERRETA DE TRAMACED
Ses Salines d'Eivissa i Formentera
Settore e rupi costiere orientali dell'Isola di Capri
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren
Shabla Lake Complex
SIERRA DE ALCUBIERRE
SIERRA DE CANCIÁS - SILVES
SIERRA DE MONCAYO - LOS FAYOS - SIERRA DE ARMAS
SIERRA DE MORALEJA Y PIEDRA SANTA
SIERRA DE SIRUELA
Sierra Espuña
SIERRA NEVADA
SIERRA SUBBETICA
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS
SIERRAS DE LEYRE Y ORBA
SIERRAS DE SANTO DOMINGO Y CABALLERA Y RÍO ONSELLA
Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Slavyanka
SOROS - AGKATHI - KEDROS
SOTOS Y CARRIZALES DEL RÍO ARAGÓN
South Appenine mixed montane forests
South Pennine Moors
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests
Spreewald
Srebarna
Sredna Gora
St. Kilda National Nature Reserve
STENA NESTOU
Strandzha
Studen Kladenets
Studenetz
Stura di Demonte
Suha Reka
Sumava Biosphere Reserve
Tagomago
Tatra Mountains
Taynish National Nature Reserve
Testa d'Alpe - Alto
Torbiere d'Iseo
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area
Triglav National Park
Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests
Tzentralen Balkan
Val Caffaro
Val Codera
Val di Scalve
Val di Togno - Pizzo Scalino
Val Formazza
Val Grigna
Valle dei Ratti - Cime di Gaiazzo
Valle del Mezzano, Valle Pega
Valli del Mincio
Valli di Argenta
Valli di Comacchio
Valli Mirandolesi
Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex
Vasilyovska Mountain
Vessertal-Thuringian Forest Biosphere Reserve
Vesuvio e Monte Somma
Viadana, Portiolo, San Benedetto Po e Ostiglia
VIÑAMALA
Vitosha
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve
Vrachanski Balkan
Waddensea of Lower Saxony
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein
Western Balkan
Western European broadleaf forests
Western Strandzha
Yatata
YGROTOPOI NEAS FOKAIAS
YGROTOPOS EKVOLON KALAMA KAI NISOS PRASOUDI
Zapadni Rodopi
Zlatiata

Attributes / relations provided by
1VARIATIONS IN SPINDLE EUONYMUS EUROPAEUS CONSUMPTION BY FRUGIVOROUS BIRDS DURING THE FRUITING SEASON, Ángel HERNÁNDEZ, Ardeola 50(2), 2003, 171-180
2Birds and berries: a study of an ecological interaction. Calton, Great Britain, Snow B.K., Snow D.W., 1988, T & AD Poyser. 268 p.
3A STUDY OF AVIAN FRUGIVORES, BIRD-DISPERSED PLANTS, AND THElR INTERACTION IN MEDITERRANEAN SCRUBLANDS, CARLOS M. HERRERA, Ecological Monographs, 54(1), 1984, pp. 1-23
4Recruitment of a Mast-Fruiting, Bird-Dispersed Tree: Bridging Frugivore Activity and Seedling Establishment, Carlos M. Herrera, Pedro Jordano, Luis López-Soria, Juan A. Amat, Ecological Monographs, 64(3), 1994, pp. 315-344
5Ecology of Commanster